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- Bedau, Hugo Adam and Kelly, Erin, "Punishment", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2015/entries/punishment/>.
- Anderson, Scott, "Coercion", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/coercion/>.
- Duff, Antony, "Legal Punishment", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2013/entries/legal-punishment/>.
- Walen, Alec, "Retributive Justice", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/justice-retributive/>.
The Boston Review's articles on crime and punishment: http://bostonreview.net/tags/crime-and-prison.
Biliographical essays are drawn from Lawrence M. Hinman, Contemporary Moral Issues, 2nd Edition
There are a number of excellent anthologies on punishment, many of which contain articles on the death penalty in particular. See Punishment and the Death Penalty: The Current Debate, edited by Robert M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum (Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1995); Punishment: A Philosophy and Public Affairs Reader, edited by A. John Simmons, Marshall Cohen, Joshua Cohen, and Charles R. Beitz (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995); Philosophy of Punishment, edited by Robert M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum (Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1988); Punishment: Selected Readings, ed. Joel Feinberg and Hyman Gross (Encino, California: Dickenson Publishing Company, 1975); Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment, edited by Gertrude Ezorsky (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1972); The Philosophy of Punishment: A Collection of Papers, edited by H. B. Acton (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1969); Theories of Punishment, edited by Stanley E. Grupp (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1971). In contrast to such comparatively modern problems as abortion and in vitro fertilization, punishment has been a theme for philosophers for centuries.
The anthology by Ezorsky contains an excellent selection of classical sources as well as contemporary authors. Also see Plato's Laws, Jeremy Bentham's An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Oxford: Blackwell, 1967), especially Chapter 13, Section 2; Immanuel Kant, The Metaphysical Elements of Justice, Part I of The Metaphysics of Morals, translated by John Ladd (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965); and G. W. F. Hegel, The Philosophy of Right, translated by T. M. Knox (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1962).
Among the influential contemporary articles and books, see especially Jeffrie G. Murphy, "Marxism and Retribution," Philosophy & Public Affairs 2, no. 3 (Spring, 1973), pp. argues in favor of a retributivist view of punishment that is compatible with the Marxist tradition; also see his Retribution, Justice and Therapy (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979). Edmund L. Pincoffs, The Rationale Of Legal Punishment (New York: Humanities Press, 1966) is an eloquent defense of a retributivist view of punishment. Also see Ernest van den Haag, Punishing Criminals (New York: Basic Books, 1975). John Cottingham, "Punishment," The Encyclopedia of Ethics, edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker ( New York: Garland, 1992), Vol. II, pp. 1053-55 and Stanley I. Benn, "Punishment," The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vol. 7, ed. Paul Edwards (New York: Macmillan, 1967), p. 29-36 both offer excellent surveys of the major issues about punishment. Among the noteworthy articles, see Andrew von Hirsch, "Doing Justice: The Principle of Commensurate Deserts," and Hyman Gross, "Proportional Punishment and Justifiable Sentences," in Sentencing, eds. H. Gross and A. von Hirsch (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981), pp. 243-56 and 272-83, respectively, offer perspicuous discussions of retributivism and punishment. Also see Michael Davis, "How to Make the Punishment Fit the Crime," Ethics, Vol. 93 (July, 1983), pp. 744 ff. And Herbert Morris, "Persons and Punishment," The Monist 52, no. 4 (October I968), pp. 475-50l, which argues that criminals have a natural, inalienable and absolute right to be punished that derives from their fundamental right to be treated as a person. For a detailed and nuanced discussion of the issue of retributivism in punishment, see Marvin Henberg, Retribution: Evil for Evil in Ethics, Law, and Literature (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990).